2020–2023       Sulfide differentiation and enrichment in metals at the lower oceanic crust and crust-mantle transition zone: ICDP OmanDP holes. Funding: National Science Centre Poland, program OPUS 17, grant no. 2019/33/B/ST10/03016 (797,281 PLN).

We investigate a long section of the lower oceanic crust, Moho Transition Zone, and upper mantle recently drilled from the Semail Ophiolite in the frame of International Continental Scientific Drilling (ICDP) program (OmanDP project). Our project will help to identify key magmatic processes for pre-concentration of metals in higher levels of the lithosphere, where they can be efficiently leached by hydrothermal fluids leading to the formation of large-scale SMS (oceans) and volcanogenic massive sulfides (VMS; land) deposits.

Layered gabbro outcrop at Somerah, Semail Ophiolite, Oman (photo: M. Grabowska, Co-Investigator of the project)


2019–2020       Sulfide differentiation and enrichment in metals in the lower oceanic crust: IODP Holes 735B & U1473A, Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge. Funding: InterRidge (5,000 USD).

We correlate sulfide–oxide rich intervals found in the lower crust section of two International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Holes 1473A and 735B located 2 km away from each other. Such an extensive magmatic horizon of ore minerals may be a source of metals for seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposits, and explain why SMSs with the highest metal grades occur on top of oceanic core complexes where lower crustal rocks can be effectively mined by hydrothermal fluids.


Jakub Ciążela in the geochemical lab of Joides Resolution during IODP Expedition 360 to drill Hole U1473A